Our discussion papers

With over 20 years of experience, we continuously challenge our industry to better the standards of indoor environment and minimise energy wastage.

We share this knowledge through our discussion papers:


Read our papers

Impact of CO₂ on Children's Learning

Ventilation is a double-edged sword.

To reduce carbon emissions, buildings have been made more air-tight, making them more energy efficient. But with inadequate ventilation, an air-tight room will suffer from poor air quality and a high CO₂ concentration.

CO₂ has a huge impact in terms of learning. Classroom CO₂ concentration should be an increasing concern as it directly interferes with cognitive function…

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Decarbonizing UK School Ventilation

The UK government has set a target of achieving net carbon zero by 2050. Scotland has brought their net carbon zero target forward to 2045, and several UK councils have brought their own deadline forward to 2030, with planning for new schools to be built to the German Passivhaus Standard.

Decarbonizing UK School Ventilation Cover
The War on Carbon: The End of the Beginning?

In the war on carbon, great progress has been made by the UK with the growth of renewable energy. Now the bottleneck has moved from the capture of renewable energy (by wind farms and solar PV arrays) to its transmission and distribution to user centres.

War on Carbon
Consequences of SAP 10.1 for Decentralised Energy

Decentralised energy systems are fundamentally about the generation
of electricity at or close to the point of consumption…

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Decarbonising London's Energy

With the average conventional power station only able to use 38% of its fuel energy for power, heat networks are here to exploit the remaining 62% which is currently dumped to atmosphere...

Enabling 4G Heat Networks in London

The Mayor’s London Plan must address the need for local system flexibility by enabling 4th generation (4G) heat networks. This proven approach to the provision of heat and power in major cities delivers a balanced energy system and affordable low carbon heating…

to BESA HIU Tests... and Beyond

The UK test standard for Heat Interface Units, developed to assess UK heat network operating parameters, is regarded as an important step towards improving the overall performance of British district heating schemes…

Energy Trilemma - Prosumer Buildings

The UK’s power capacity market – our ‘insurance’ against the lights going out – is currently centred on large, traditional fossil fuel power stations spread across the country. Only a small percentage of this standby capacity is provided by smaller, decentralised energy centres…

SAP 10 or Energy Trilemma

The UK faces a challenging trilemma, with a need to address 3 key issues:

• Reducing carbon emissions
• Cutting energy costs and tackling fuel poverty
• Security of supply…


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